Les membres du club excelafrica à l’UNIVERSITE BURUNDI ,à part les publications en rapport avec la vie académiques à l’université du BURUNDI ou la vie social à ladite université ,les membres dudit club s’occupent aussi d’autres travaux de facture international où ils donnent leur poin de vue en rapport avec la vie économique dans le cadre international ,ou les relations internationales entres les ETATS .Il est vrai le BURUNDI est un pays francophone mais qui est dans la communauté EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY où tous les pays membres parlent de la langue anglaise.C’est dans ce cadre que l’étudiant :SABUSHIMIKE JEAN CLAUDE
UNIVERSITE DU BURUNDI
DEPARTEMENT DES SCIENCES POLITIQUES
QUI est aussi AMBASSADEUR ET PRESIDENT DU CLUB EXCELAFRICA à L’UNIVERSITE DU BURUNDI ,vient de publier son assaie où il dit à propros des relations internationales en matière de développement entre les pays du nord et les pays du sud .Il montre aussi les problèmes que le BURUNDI peut avoir du fait que tous les pays de l’EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY parlent de la langue anglaise .Jean claude SABUSHIMIKE a publié son document en anglais pour montrer que les étudiants BURUNDAIS connaissent aussi la langue anglaise qui est actuellemen à ka page .
Dans nos publications prochaines nous vous montrerons les projets de développement que les membres du club excelafrica à l’université du BURUNDI sont en train de réaliser pour aider les BARUNDI qui sont dans une pauvrété extrême .
Laissons-nous donc lire cette publication de monsieur
JEAN CLAUDE SABUSHIMIKE
BY SABUSHIMIKE John Claude
POLITICS SCIENCES DEPARTMENT.
TITLE: INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RELATIONS BETWEEN
THE COUNTRIES OF THE SOUTH AND THE COUNTRIES OF
Recent political, economic, technological and institutional changes had had a major impact on the global environment for development. In particular, the end of the cold war signified the beginning of a new era in international relations, in which the political and economic ideologies of the major market economies gained a new ascendancy. In our essay, we are insisting on : Globalization and Liberalization, Science and Technology, Environment and Development, concretely with some examples about the problems of BURUNDI my country. At the end, I try to show some resolutions and applying.
International development: the early phase.
The early years sow, against this back ground, a degree of progress in international development cooperation. Most of leading developed countries launched programs of bilateral aid to developing countries on concessional terms. Multilateral financial institutions established after the war, particularly the World Bank and International monetary Fund, shifted their attention from post war reconstruction and international monetary management to the needs of developing countries. International strategies of development were launched in the United Nations with the support of the Development. A “ Platform” of the developing countries came to be forged to reflect their needs and to identify the responses called for from the developed countries in the arena of the multilateral negotiations. The platform embodied such issues as the need to enhance capital flows to the developing countries, to improve and stabilize the terms of trade for primary produces, to liberalize the market for their exports and to provide preferential access to such markets on a non-discriminatory basis. These needs were also given quantitative dimension through the elaboration of such concept as the “ The trade GAP” facing the developing countries in pursuit of accepted targets for their average growth.
Globalization and liberalization.
The result of all these changes was the emergence of a new ideology sponsored by the countries of the west and the international organizations they influence. The new thinking came to be summed up under the caption “Globalization and Liberalization”. To a large extent, this concept displaced many of the principles that guided earlier multilateral negotiations on economic issues, in particular the acceptance of the role and responsibilities of the state and the recognition of the need of the developing countries for special treatment. Globalization and Liberalization came to be presented as a universal panacea of benefit to the developed and developing countries alike. Its principal theme was that trends towards the integration of the global economy, stimulated by political and technological developments, needed to be accelerated to bring virtually unlimited benefits to all countries. The concept of an eventual “Global village” excited the imagination of many.
The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, for their part, promoted the further unilateral opening up of developing country markets under the aegis of structural adjustment policies that became the care of conditionality packages. These and other changes adapted the framework of national and international policies to facilitate the process of globalization that had already begun to gain momentum because of the changes in the Global political scene, technological developments in fields such as transportation and communications, and the related increase in the mobility of trans-national corporations and other agents of private economic activity.
The principles and policy prescriptions that arose out of the theme of Globalization and liberalization had virtually a devastating impact on the themes that had earlier been interwoven with the concept of international development cooperation. They shifted the focus of policy from multilateral negotiations on development issues to the domestic actions and policies of the developing countries. Their key to boarding the fast train of globalization was the opening up of the domestic economies of these countries to the powerful forces of the market, both local and foreign. Liberalization, deregulation, privatization and monetary financial discipline became the policy instrument needed for economic success. Countries that adopted them would be carried to ever increasing heights of progress while those that failed to do so would be left behind and be “marginalized”. International actions aimed specifically at improving the Global environment for development, such as aid on concessional terms, measures to counter the instability and weakness of commodity markets, preferential tariffs for developing country exports, debt reduction and guidelines for the transfer of technology, to name a few examples, ceased to form part of the imperatives for global policies. To extent that, some of them were still applied, they would be focused on the poorest and the weakest countries and made subject to a strict adherence to the dictates of conditionality. The North-South dialogue has ceased virtually to exist. For well over, a decade now there have been no negotiations on international development issues comparable to those that took place before and during the seventies. In effect, the Globalization and liberalization philosophy has displaced the concept of international development cooperation.
There have been significant developments in the global economy under the influence of the “Globalization and Liberalization” doctrine. There has been a vigorous and possibility historically unparalleled, surge in the growth rates of international trade and financial flown across borders. But, the overall growth rates of the developed countries, and consequently of the global economy, have not shown any dramatic acceleration in recent years. The opening up of national markets for goods, services and investment in the context of striking advances in the field of science and technology, particularly communications technologies, has indeed made a reality of some of the expectations concerning global integration and global linkage. Domestic markets including those of an ever increasing number of developing countries have been progressively opened up along with the liberalization of investment requirements. Liberalization within regional groupings also provided an additional tier to the global process. The overall picture of developments in the global economy did indeed suggest the birth of the new phase with the promise even greater possibilities for the future.
Science and technology.
Technological transformation lies at the core of the development process and advanced technological capacity is one of the distinguishing attributes of the developed countries. Advances in this realm have been so rapid that the future is being portrayed as belonging to a “Knowledge society”. Yet the prevailing gap between the developed and developing countries in this field despite some notable advances in some countries of the South remains enormous.
Scientific and technological capability, including the all important human resource capacity, grows in many ways through national actions, through South-South cooperation and above all through a variety of interactions between the developed and the developed countries. International trade, foreign direct investment, facilities for education, advanced studies, work experience, links between centres of research and learning, arrangement for the purchase and sale innovation and intellectual property, are among the multiple channels through which scientific and technological advances are developed and disseminated across national boundaries. Both the state and private actors have been important agents in the generation and transmission of scientific and technological advance.
About this concept ‘’science and technology’’, I am to say that here in BURUNDI, we have serious problems. The government has no real politic for helping Burundians especially the young students, pupils and others in having access to internet, source of information by excellence in science and technology matters.
For example, BURUNDI UNIVERSITY where I study is a unique public university of Burundi and we haven’t any cyber where we can make our research about science and technology. I am not here to lie, just 80% of Burundian students of our university don’t know how to move the mouse of a computer. We regret very much because Burundians speak French while the Anglophone countries of sub-region are advanced in science and technology. For example, me who study in Politics Sciences, I knew nothing at English. For knowing the little I know, I’ve done all of myself in making my brother “THE OXFORD ADVANCED LEARNER’S DICTIONARY”. Now, I can speak, read and make researches in English.
My replying is addressed to our economics partners to orient their aids in research of science, technology and information; but only in sectors purely abstract like: good governance or commission of peace and reconciliation. Now, our Burundi is already member of the East African Community (E.A.C).How with our French will we make a competition with Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya; Anglophone countries and very developed in many domains. No one ignore, the youth is the future of the world .So south countries need, therefore, to deal selectively and constructively with the manifold aspects of science and technology. This is a task that needs to be organized in the context of the follow-up work in the period ahead.
Environment and development.
Since the early days of the North-South dialogue, a number of new issues have emerged which have been the subject of discussions and negotiations in multilateral bodies and are relevance to the developing countries. The issue of environment is among the most prominent among these. The theme of “sustainable development” is one of the outcomes of the environment debate. Nevertheless, environmental issues cannot be focused primarily on the development process of the developing countries in the name of “sustainability”. It is true that attention needs to be given to avoiding or limiting, as for as possible, the adverse environmental and ecological consequences that could accompany the acceleration of economic growth. International cooperation can play a major part in assisting in this objective through technological and financial support.
There is however, another major dimension to the environmental issue that goes beyond the “sustainability”, taken in isolation, of the development process already being imposed on the global ecological system by the advanced countries are pre-empting the future development prospects of the countries of the south.
It is indeed being said that the global ecological system cannot accommodate the replication by developing countries, with their vast populations, of the present development models, living standards, and life styles of the North.
For example, here in BURUNDI, we have many problems attached to environment. Contaminated water is like a big elephant in BURUNDI. Many Burundians die from a disease caused by contaminated water. Many children, women and men affect each year, most victims are under the age of five. Everywhere, limited access to clean drinking water threatens the health and well-being millions of people. Sadly, nowhere is this crisis as prevalent as among the poverty-stricken of BURUNDI.
In villages and communities around the World, many international organisms work with men, women and children to help them identify and resolve their problems. Their approach assists whole communities develop the capacity to overcome the effects of poverty and create a new future. I believe that when poor themselves are the initiators in resolving the problems of poverty, the results are sustainable and they have the tools necessary to succeed into for the future.
Yet, a World highly contrasting living standards should be the result of the development process. A development model that is sustainable globally calls first and foremost for actions and efforts by the developed countries to evolve, apply, and disseminate technologies and models of productions and consumption that relieve the pressures that are already being imposed on the global environmental. without that there will be insufficient “environment space” left in the global system to accommodate the development process of the countries of the South.
In conclusion, I’m to say that there are various possibilities that might serve to fill the present vacuum. One is the development of a networking system between countries of the South involving specialists and researchers in the various fields of importance. This will require actions and activities at the national level that will serve to create a wider circle of developing country professionals to support the work of ministry and departmental officials who are generally the most familiar with the multilateral scene. It will also require linkages between research institutions and individual expert in different countries. Use will need to be made of modern advances in electronic communications that provide new opportunities for such linkages.
Regional cooperation organizations of developing countries should also be invited to address issues relating to the impact of global developments and negotiations on their respective regions. There is too little of this at the moment but could serve in helping to reconcile the positions of different countries and groups of countries in relation to multilateral issues and thus in forging common positions. The overarching need in respect of all such proposals and possibilities is that of coordination. The establishment of mechanisms for such coordination is a sine qua non for progress of the South.
PUBLIEE LE 28/06/2008
PAR JEAN CLAUDE SABUSHIMIKE
AMBASSADEUR ET PRESIDENT DU
CLUB EXCELAFRICA UNIVERSITE DU BURUNDI
E-mail :[email protected]